PTF 9-16
Boat Manual
Operating Guide=

[ Particulars ] [ Hull Spec ] [ General ] [ Ventilation ] [ Power ] [ Fire Control ] [ ABC ] [ Ops Guide ] [ Misc ]



8.1.1. General
8.1.2. Before start
8.1.3. Starting and warming
8.1.4. Running
8.1.5. Watch-keeping 
8.1.6. Stopping and shut-down
8.1.7. Servicing and maintenance 
8.2.1. Before start 
8.2.2. Starting 
8.2.3. Inspection during running
8.2.4. Stopping 
8.2.5. Servicing and maintenance 
8.4.1. Before start 
8.4.2. Starting 
8.4.3. Checks to be made during air charging 
8.4.4. Stopping 
8.4.5. Servicing and maintenance

8.5.1. To connect the generators with the main
8.5.2. To switch off one generator from the circuit 
          when both are running 
8.5.3. To connect the circuits from the main switchboard 
8.5.4. Charging the storage battery 
8.5.5. Shore supply
8.5.6. Inspection and maintenance 
8.6.1. General remarks
8.6.2. Ready for sea 
8.6.3. Leaving harbour  
8.6.4. Under way 
8.6.5. Going alongside quay
8.6.6. Towing
8.7     LIQUIDS  
8.7.1. Fuel oil 
8.7.2. Lubricating oil 
8.7.3. Coolant
8.7.4. Fresh water 
8.8.1. Inspection 
8.8.2. Directions for dismantling 


All reference numbers refer to the system drawing at the end of this book. 

8.1.1. General 

Starting the main engines requires at least two men, one in the control room and one in the engine room. 

Before starting the engine, operators should become familiar with the position and function of instruments, warning devices and engine controls. 

The control room operators should be in charge of the starting procedure. 

If the engine has been idle for a period of 4 weeks or more, the engine must be turned by hand using the hand turning gear before starting. The engine must also be hand-turned before starting after any major component has been replaced. 

The starting preliminaries must be carried out before the first start of the day, but not necessarily before any subsequent starts. 

A newly installed engine, or an engine which has been standing idle for over 4 weeks, should be started according to instructions in the "Deltic Maintenance Manual," article 12.3. 

The instructions below for starting and operating apply to engines which have been standing idle for less than 4 weeks. 

For detailed instructions in the engine operation, servicing, etc., see "Deltic Maintenance Manual," Publication 505. 

8.1.2. Before Start 

Both engines can be made ready for starting simultaneously. Smoking is not allowed in the engine room.

 Exhaust and air supply system. 

  1. Check that the air inlet duct on deck is open. 
  2. Check that the transom exhaust outlets are uncovered. 
  3. Check that the flap-valves in under water exhaust pipes are open. 

Lubricating system. 

  1. Check the level in the oil service tank, top up as necessary by positioning cocks (2) and (3) in correct manner and use the priming pump (1). 
  2. Prime the engine lubricating systems by positioning the cocks (2) "From the service tank," and cocks (3)"to the main engine," and operate the hand priming pumps (1) 30 to 40 strokes. 
  3. Open the valves (6) and (7). 

Air starting system. 

  1. Check that the starting pressure is approx. 30 kg/cm2 -- 425 Lb/ -- and open the valve (20) on the air receiver. The cross-connection valve (21) is for emergency use only. 
  2. Drain the air receiver of water/oil. 

Cooling system. 

  1. Check that the coolant level in the header tanks is between the max. - and minimum marks. If necessary the coolant header tank level can be topped by positioning valve (5) to the appropriate tank and by using the hand pump (4). 
  2. Check that the sea water valves (15), (16) and (17) are open. 
  3. Prime the sea water cooling system by starting the auxiliary engine according to article 8.2. Open the valves (13) and position the valve (14) for priming both main engines. 

Fuel system. 

  1. Check the level in the fuel tanks, either by the sight glasses or by dipstick. 
  2. Check that the fuel valves (8), (9), (10) and (11) are open and that the cocks (12) on the fuel filters (27) are positioned to one of the filters. 
  3. Prime the fuel system by positioning the cocks (23) and (24) and operate the hand priming pump (22) until a steady resistance is felt on the handle, and the pressure indicator in the control room reads approximately 15 Lb/ 

In cold weather the starting aid should be used as follows : 

Start Pilot System MK I.  Insert capsules into starting air pump units, and operate the pump 3 to 4 strokes. 

Start Pilot System MK II.  Operate this revised system in accordance with the instructions contained in the "Deltic Maintenance Manual,"  Publication 505, article 6.2. 


8.1.3. Starting and Warming 

When article 8.1.2. has been carried out, the engines should be started as follows: 

  1. Switch on the main switch for warning lights and rack- indicator. 
  2. Set the control lever to the (NEUTRAL( position. 
  3. Move the shut-down lever to (RUN,.
  4. Push the starter-lever (25) and hold until the engine fires. (To ease the starting procedure, the fuel-oil priming pump can be operated during starting). 

When the engine has started, the following should be checked: 

  1. Lub.-oil pressure. Minimum 3.1 kglcm2 - 45 Lb/ 
  2. Clutch-oil pressure. Minimum 5.6 kglcm2 - 80 Lb/ 
  3. Fuel-oil pressure. Minimum 1.4 kglcm2 - 20 Lb/ 
  4. Coolant pressure starts to rise.
  5. Sea water circulates satisfactorily. 
  6. Leaks. (All pipe connections etc, free from leaks). 

When the engines are running satisfactorily, the valves (20) on the air storage bottles should be closed, and the "Rack delay " system should be switched on (See fig. 11.7 a). 

Do not put any load on the engine before it is satisfactorily warmed through. 

Emergency start, or "Trailing-in" start.  In on emergency when under way on one engine, the other engine can be started by the force of the trailing propeller in the following manner: 

  1. Make the stopped engine ready for start as described in article 8.1.2. and 8.1.3 (1 and 3), and set the control-lever in "AHEAD," position. 
  2. Increase speed on the operating engine to approx. 1100 r.p.m. 
  3. Open the valve (26) on the "Trailing-in," oil pipe, first on the running engine and then slowly the valve (26) on the engine to be started. Close both valves again as soon as the engine has started. 
  4. Due to the transfer of oil from the running engine to the engine being started, the oil level in the service tanks should be checked. 

8.1.4. Running 

When the running checks have been mode and temperatures are normal, the engines are ready for operating in gear. 

The instructions for running ahead and for running astern are similar. The control positions are marked on the control lever quadrant. 

To propel the boat, move the control lever from "NEUTRAL," to "AHEAD," or "ASTERN," as required. The lever will be arrested at the "AHEAD," or "ASTERN," position due to the action of the hydraulic gate on the control unit, but after a few seconds delay will be free to move again. Continued movement of lever toward "FULL AHEAD," or "FULL ASTERN," will progressively increase the engine speed, and reverse movement of the lever toward "NEUTRAL " will progressively decrease engine speed. The clutch will automatically disengage when the lever is returned to the "NEUTRAL" position. 

The instruments must be engine must constantly watched and NOT be operated outside the limits quoted in the "Operating Data". 




The following temperatures, pressures, speeds, etc., ore the maximum or minimum values that can be permit- ted without impairing the efficiency and maximum service life of the engine. During all running the instruments must be watched carefully to ensure that these limitations are not exceeded. 

Performance Limitations






Total in 
1000 hours

Minimum continuous






Maximum continuous





980 hours

Maximum power




15 minutes
(above 1800 c.r.p.m.)

 20 hours

Maximum permissible acceleration

 Idling to 1400 c.r.p.m. in not less than 1 minute
1400 c.r.p.m. to 2100 c.r.p.m. in not less than 2 minutes

 Maximum permissible outlet temperatures: 

  • Oil 
      deg. F=220 
      deg. C=105
  • Coolant
      deg. F=194 
      deg. C=90

Maximum permissible exhaust manifold back pressure 
At maximum r.p.m. 

  • Lb/  1.0 
  • kg/cm2     0.0703 

Maximum permissible exhaust stub temperature 
All cylinders  

  • 830 deg. F 
  • 443deg.  C 



As the engine temperatures and pressures are unlikely to remain constant from day to day under varying ambient conditions, the precise value that will be obtained under all varying conditions cannot be simply tabulated, but extremes that might be encountered can be expressed as a range. In the following table, therefore, ranges of values ore given as a guide to the correct functioning of the engine; the operator will, however, quickly be- come familiar with the temperatures and pressures to be expected in his locality.

Crankshaft r.p.m.   Slow
1000 1400 Continuous
Oil pressure Lb/ kg/cm2 30
Clutch pressure Lb/ kg/cm2  125-135
Oil inlet temperature deg.F
Coolant pressure Lb/ kg/cm2 7-9
Coolant outlet temperature deg.F
Fuel pressure Lb/ kg/cm2    20-25
Exhaust temperature deg. C 80-150 190-250 230-300 280-375 335-415

Note: For operating in conditions other than temperate, adjustments must be made according to the ambient prevailing conditions. See alterations and/or supplements recommended by D. Napier & Son Ltd. 

8.1.5. Watch-keeping 

It is not practical to keep a constant watch in the engine room as all the instruments for the engines are placed in the control room. The operators in the control room can also see the oil level in the service tanks through the bulkhead window. 

The fuel oil quantity can be checked with the sounding equipment on the tanks. Periodical visits to the engine room by one of the operators should be made to check the coolant level in the header tanks, and check the machinery for leaks etc. 

If the sea water inlet strainers are cleaned while the engines are running, care must be taken when operating the valves. 

It is recommended to open both vertical valves (spindles) before operating the sliding piston (horizontal) selector valve. This to ensure that the pumps always get cooling water. (See directions for use mounted on bulkhead.) 

8.1.6. Stopping and Shut-down 

Normal stop. 

  1. Move the control lever to the "NEUTRAL," position. 
  2. Move the shut-down lever to "STOP." 
  3. Switch off the switches for the warning lights, rack- indicators and rack-delays. 

Emergency stop only. 

  1. Move the shut-down lever to "STOP." 
  2. Move the control lever to the "NEUTRAL," position. 

Final stop after the day's run. 

  1. Stop the engine in the normal manner. 
  2. Shut the valves (6), (7), (10) and (15). 
  3. Cover the transom exhaust pipe outlets. 
  4. Close the flap-valves in underwater exhaust. 
  5. With the boat in daily use, the valves (8),(11), (12), (16) and (17) can be left open. 

8.1.7. Servicing and Maintenance 

  1. Keep the engines clean. 
  2. Materials used for engine cleaning must not include either cotton waste or gasoline. 
  3. Do not leave any rags on the engines, as these can hinder the controls and obstruct vents, etc. and are a constant fire risk. 
  4. Check all systems for leaks. 
  5. Check all external fastenings, nuts and bolts. 
  6. Check all thermocouples for tightness. 
  7. Keep the starting air storage bottles fully charged. (28-30 kg/cm2 -- 395-425 Lbs/ 
  8. Check the quantity of fuel oil and lube oil and fill up as required. 
  9. Use clean lub. oil and fuel oil only. 
  10. Check the fuel tanks for water and drain as necessary. 
  11. The filters (27), (28), (29) and (30) should be cleaned in accordance with instructions in the "Deltic Maintenance Manual," Chapter 9. 
  12. The strainers in the main sea water inlets (15) should be checked and cleaned every two weeks, or more frequently if the boat is operating in shallow water or water containing materials which are likely to enter the sea inlets. 
  13. The filters (27) can be cleaned under way as the valve (12) can be positioned to either of the two filters.

For further instructions in fault finding, servicing and maintenance, changing of parts, installation, etc., see "Deltic Maintenance Manual," Publication 505. 



All reference numbers refer to the system drawing at the end of this book. 

8.2.1. Before Start 

  1. Check the lubricating oil and cooling water. The lubricating oil can be checked by a dipstick in the sump, on which the maximum and minimum levels are marked. The cooling water can be checked by the amount in the heat exchanger. Normally it has to be almost full. 
  2. Open the sea inlet valve (31) for sea water cooling. 
  3. Open the valves (13) and (14) for discharging of sea water through the main engine sea water outlets. This is done to prime the main engine sea water system and to reduce the amount of water through the auxiliary exhaust pipe. 
  4. Check that valve (33) for the cooling water to the compressor is closed. 
  5. Open one of the valves (8) on the fuel oil storage tanks, the appropriate valves (9) and (10) below the floorboards in the control room, and valve (34) on the fuel manifold tank. 
  6. Check that the selector switch, under the main engine control desk is set to: "Start auxiliary engine," (See article 51.8). 
  7. Check that the compressor is not engaged and that the generator is not connected to the main switch- board. 

8.2.2. Starting 

The following instruments etc, are mounted on the auxiliary engine panel: 

Starter-switch, switch for starting aid heater, priming pump for starting aid, lubricating oil pressure gauge and coolant temperature gauge. 

The starting and priming pump is disconnected. 

In hot weather or if the engine is hot, it will start immediately by turning with the electric starter. 

When the engine has started, check the oil pressure, which should read 40 Lb/ -- 2.8 kg/cm2 minimum.

Check that the sea water pump is working by feeling the difference in temperature on the exhaust pipe, before and after the sea water entry. 

The normal working temperature for the engine is 80deg. C -- 176deg. F. 

Switch on the switches for the control lamps (Lubricating- oil pressure and coolant temperature) in the control room. The switches are mounted above the main engine instrument panels. 

The auxiliary engines are fitted with governors, but it may be necessary to adjust the revolutions now and again with the remote hand control, to keep the frequency at 60 c/s. The hand control is mounted above the control desk in the control room (see article 3.3.1 and 8.5.1). 

When starting the auxiliary engines in extreme cold weather, the starting aid "Heater," can be used by holding the "Heater" switch in for about 30 seconds, before turning the engine with the starter. 

NOTE: Always be sure that the starter pinion has stopped revolving before re-engaging the starter motor 
             otherwise the ring or pinion may be damaged. 

8.2.3. Inspection during running 

The lubricating oil pressure and the cooling water temperature can be checked by the warning lights in the control room. 

The coolant level in the heat exchanger, and the temperature of the exhaust pipe and silencer should be checked at least once on hour. 

The load can be put on soon after starting. 

8.2.4. Stopping 

Before stopping, the generator must be switched off. The compressor should also be disengaged. 

  1. The engine is stopped by pressing down the spring- loaded adjusting lever on the governor. By this means the fuel supply to the cylinders is stopped. 
  2. Shut the fuel valve (34) on the manifold tank. 
  3. If the engine is going to be stopped for a long period, the valves (9) and (10) and the valve (8) on the fuel storage tank, should also be closed.
  4. The valves (13) and (14) can be left open. 
  5. Close the sea inlet valve (31) if the engine room is going to be evacuated. 

8.2.5. Servicing and Maintenance

  1. Keep the engine clean and free from oil. 
  2. Do not "rev-up" the engine when it is running light. 
  3. Use clean lubricating oil and fuel oil only. 
  4. Check that the fuel oil supply is adequate with no leaks in the pipes etc. 
  5. Keep the fuel system free of air. 
  6. Check the valve-clearances at appropriate times. This should be 0.010 inch hot. 
  7. Tighten all foundation bolts and external nuts and bolts periodically. 
  8. Check the terminals on the starter and the battery.
  9. Always keep the battery well charged. 

For more details in fault finding and inspection, see "Workshop Manual for Perkins Diesel". 

The maneuvering efficiency of the boat depends on the displacement. The turning diameter however, is the best at a speed of 30-35 knots (1500-1700 RPM). 

The steering quality depends on the rudder adjustment, and the displacement. When the boat is delivered, the rudders are adjusted in parallel as the most efficient angle for both steering and speed. If a rudder is changed, it has to be re-adjusted to obtain the best results. 

8.6.5. Going alongside quay 

When coming alongside, the boat should be slowed down and the mooring equipment, fenders, etc. should be made ready in ample time. 

The boat will quickly loose speed as soon as the engine controls are moved to the neutral position, and it will drift very easily with the wind. 

The boat will not steer with the propellers stopped. 

  1. Going alongside, the boat should be approaching at on angle of approx. 15degrees to the quay. 
  2. When the bow rope is ashore, the outer engine should be run astern for a short period and the stern will swing towards the quay. Use fenders as necessary. 
  3. When the boat is alongside, the rest of the moorings should be laid and the boat properly secured.

 Warning: When operating in cold climates below freezing point, the strainers in the air intake for the 
                  main engines must be kept free from ice, as the ice may restrict the airflow to the engines

8.6.6. Towing 

For towing purposes each boat is fitted out with a bridle. The use is shown on the figure. 

The bridles are fastened to the bollards and one or two anchor ropes are used as tow-rope, the distance between the boats will then be approx. 115 or 215 metres - 350 or 650 feet. 


Towing arrangement jpg (23801 bytes)

A towing speed of approximately 12 knots should not be exceeded. 

Note!  The bollard and bow chock in centre on the fore deck should not be used for towing. 
            The two outboard bollards on fore- and oft deck are strengthened below deck. 



8.7.1. Fuel Oil 

In the fuel oil system there are ten identical storage tanks. The tanks are  placed four on each side of section IV and two in centre of the same section forward. 

Each tank is fitted with a venting pipe which is connected to a ventilator on deck, and with a combined sounding/filling pipe fitted with a deck plug marked "Diesel Oil". 

The fuelling pipes are installed two on each side of the bridge, two in centre under the shelter and two on each side abaft the bridge. An "Aeroquip" pipe is mounted between the outlet valves in the lower end of each storage tank, and a 3-way selector cock in the fuel supply cross-connection pipe. 

The cross-connection pipe is connected to the two manifold tanks placed under the floorboards in the control room, one on each side of the boot centre line. 

Each of the manifold tanks is fitted with a venting pipe, connected to goosenecks on deck, one on each side of the centre line abaft the bridge. These vent pipes are marked "Venting and pressure fuelling". (For further details see article 4.1 -- Fuel oil system.) 

Ordinary Fueling.  Check the fuel oil level in each storage tank before filling, either by the sounding equipment (see article 4.1.3), or by dipstick. 

The dipstick is stored on bulkhead frame 64 in the aft compartment, an it should be used for accurate reading.

Check that the valves on the storage tanks are closed before filling. 

Pressure Fueling.  The storage tanks can also be filled by pressure. 

First, check the fuel oil level in each tank. Then connect the fuel supply hose to one of the two manifold tank vent. pipes. The other manifold tank vent pipe shall be blanked by using the blanking nut which is fastened to the pipe with a chain. 

Open the valves in the main supply lines and the outlet valves for the tanks to be filled. 

Two tanks should be filled simultaneously, and the max. filling pressure should be 2 kg/cm2 -- 28.5 Lbs/ 

Use clean fuel only. 


8.7.2. Lubricating Oil 

In the lubricating oil system there is a storage tank installed under the floorboards on port side in the control room. 

The tank is fitted with a venting pipe with gooseneck above the floorboards, a dipstick which is welded to a screw plug, and a filling pipe connected to deck, with a screw plug in the deck. It is placed on the port side abaft the bridge and marked: lubricating oil,. (For further details see article 4.2.). 

Filling.  Check the lubricating oil level in the tank before filling. The oil can be filled through the pipe from deck, and it should be filled slowly in order to avoid overflow through the gooseneck in the control room. 

Use clean oil of the recommended brand only. (See "Deltic Maintenance Manual," Publication 505). 

8.7.3. Coolant 

In the cooling system there is a storage tank installed under the floorboards on the starboard side of the control room. 

It is fitted with a vent pipe with gooseneck above the floorboards, a dipstick which is welded to a screw plug, and a filling pipe connected to deck with a screw plug in the deck. It is placed on the starboard side abaft the bridge, and marked: "Distilled water engine." (For further details see article 4.3.2.). 

Filling.  When the coolant level in the tank has been checked, the tank can be filled through the pipe from deck. 

The coolant should be a mixture of 30% by volume ethylene glycol to British Standard B.S. 3150A (formerly DTD 779) to 70% by volume of distilled water or chloride- free, soft or artificially softened water. 

The ethylene glycol to B.S. 3150A, contains 10 cc of Captax inhibitor to 1 liter of ethylene glycol. 

Specific Gravity of Ethylene Glycol Chart jpg (90618 bytes)

When mixing the coolant, the glycol should be mixed slowly with the water and stirred thoroughly. The specific gravity of the coolant should be according to the diagram on the next page. 

NOTE: If, for some reason, another type of coolant has to be used, the system has to be thoroughly 
             washed out by fresh water before refilling. 

For further details on coolant, see Napier Service Bulletin DM 27, and "Deltic Maintenance Manual, Publication 505. 

8.7.4. Fresh Water (Drinking) 

In the fresh water system there is one storage tank installed below the floorboards on the boat centre line, in the crew's quarters. 

The tank has a vent pipe to the wash-basin in the galley, and a filling pipe to the tank fitted with a valve. 

The filling pipe is connected to the deck, and the screw plug in the deck is marked: "Drinking water". It is placed in front of the bridge on the starboard side. 

The tank has a dipstick below the floorboards, and it is welded to the screw plug in the tank. 

(For further details see article 4.8.). 

Keys for the deck screw plugs are stored on the aft bulkhead of the bridge, beside the CO2 hand release.



8.8.1. Inspection 

The boat should be maintained in good order at all times to ensure maximum service and safety. 

The frequency and duration of inspections and overhauls depends very much on the operational use of the boat. 

In general, the boat should be docked at least every four months for inspection of the bottom and hull.

Inspection and maintenance of the machinery should be carried out as follows: 

Main engines: See article 8.1.7. and the "Deltic Maintenance Manual," Publication 505. 

Auxiliary engines: See article 8.2.5. and "Workshop Manual for Perkins Diesel."

Air compressors: See article 8.4.5. 

Generators and storage batteries: See article 8.5.6. 

Further maintenance should be carried out as required. In general the whole boat should be inspected once a month. 

To maintain the speed, the bottom of the boat must be kept clean. When the boat is docked for hull inspection and/or painting of the bottom, the propellers, rudders and other underwater equipment should also be inspected. 

It is very important to keep the propellers in good condition, as very small deformations, bends, cuts or corrosion will reduce the speed considerably. 

The following general instructions concerning inspections are given: 

It is not possible however to cover everything in this manual, therefore a constant look-out should be kept for leaks, loose connections, vibrations etc. and faults should be corrected as soon as possible. 

  1. Keep the boot clean, both outside and inside, above as well as below the floorboards. 
    NOTE: Caustic soda or similar strong cleaning compound should not be used in the bilges as it is 
                 liable to attack the marine glues used in construction of the hull, if not rinsed properly out 
  2. Check the stern tube stuffing boxes, and the rubber connections, and tighten if necessary. 
  3. Check exhaust pipes and all connections for leaks. 
  4. Lubricate the steering equipment, including ball joints, and the chain for emergency steering. 
  5. Cheek the oil level in the steering wheel pump. It should be just below the glass. 
  6. Check the Teleflex connections (engine controls). Auxiliary engines: 
  7. Check and tighten the fastenings for fuel oil storage tanks. 
  8. Check the fastenings for the tanks under the floorboards in the control room, and the fresh water storage tank under the floorboards in the crew's after quarter. 
  9. Check all pipes and systems for leaks. 
  10. Check the water closet pumps, pipes and valves from closets and wash-basins for leaks. 
  11. Check all switches and instruments. 
  12. Check and lubricate the fans in the crew's lavatory, the officers lavatory and the fans for the galley and converter room. 
  13. Check and lubricate the navigation horn. 
  14. Lubricate all locking mechanisms in watertight doors and hatches. 
  15. Check all joints on watertight doors and hatches. 
  16. Check and clean the filter for the thermatank (ventilation) fan. Access is through a removable plate above the thermotank. Also check and lubricate the bearings in the fans. 
  17. Check the fire extinguishers in accordance with the makers' recommendations. 

8.8.2. Directions for dismantling 

The main engines should be disconnected for removal in accordance with  the "Deltic Maintenance Manual," Publication 505. 

The auxiliary engines should be disconnected for removal in accordance with the directions in the "Work- shop Manual for Perkins Diesel". The auxiliary engines and the generators can be removed separately. 

Brackets for lifting equipment are fitted above the auxiliary engines and generators. These brackets can be moved to four different positions. 

The propellers are  fastened to the shafts by keys and nuts, and both shafts have right-hand threads. When removing the propellers the retaining screws in the propeller nut should be removed, and the nut can then be loosened by the special spanner which is stored in the oft compartment. The propellers can be removed by using a special extractor. 

The propeller shafts can be withdrawn when the propellers and the coupling flanges have been removed. Check that the shafts are clean and free from damage which may cut the bearings. Use soft soap for lubrication if necessary. 

Where the shafts are to be withdrawn, the boat has to be placed so that the minimum distance between the keel and the bottom of the dock, and the free distance abaft the stern, are in accordance with article 9.2.2.

The Cutless bearings can be removed, when the shafts have been withdrawn, in the following manner: When removing the stern tube bearings, first remove the end cap and the retaining screws. Recesses are cut in the forward end of the stern tubes to accommodate the extractor. 

The tool should be correctly positioned before extracting the bearing. 

When removing the bracket bearings, first remove the bearing retaining screws. A metal ring is placed in the front of each bearing, and the tool for removing the bearing should be positioned for pulling on that ring, to avoid damaging the bearing. 

The rudders are kept in place by the tillers. 

When removing the rudders, eye-bolts should be fitted in the ends of the rudder stocks. 

A strong rope should be fastened in the rudder eye-bolt and in the fastenings below deck. When the rope has been properly tightened, the tiller can be removed and the gland nut and gland slackened to release the rudder. 

To get the rudder out, the distance between the bottom of the boat and the dock should be as described in article 9.2.2. 

The tanks. When the tanks shall be removed, they should be emptied and all pipes disconnected.

When the fuel storage tanks have to be removed, the removable section in the deck have to be removed, and the fastenings released, see article 3.1.4. 

All the fuel storage tanks are fastened with plastic-lined steel wires. The tanks can be removed after releasing the tension screws. 

The lubricating oil and coolant storage tanks are identical and can be installed either on port or starboard side. The manhole cover has to be turned to suit the pipes. The tanks can be removed by first removing the floor- boards, beams and fastenings. 

The fuel oil manifold tanks can be removed in the same way. 

The lubricating oil service tanks and the coolant header tanks can be removed without any special arrangements. 

To remove the fresh water (drinking water) storage tank, the settee in the aft part of the crew's quarters has to be dismantled and the fastenings removed. 

The storage tanks for lubricating oil, coolant and fresh water, and the coolant header tanks can be cleaned through the manholes without removing the tanks. 

The remainder of the tanks have to be removed in order to remove the manhole covers. All identical tanks can be installed on port or star- board side. 

The lubricating oil service tanks can be removed through doors and hatches. The remainder of the tanks can only be removed through removable sections in deck. 

The thermotank with fan can be removed by first removing the aluminum plate which is fastened with rubber sealing. 

The electric stove in the galley has to be partly dismantled to be removed. 

Note: The yard has used aluminum to a great extent in construction, tanks and pipes on these boats. 
           When repairing, it is emphasized that the original types of metal should be used in screws and 
           bolts etc, to minimize the danger of electrolytic corrosion.